Thrones are a class of angels stemming from an interpretation of Colossians 1:16 [1].
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite wrote the work De Coelesti Hierarchia in which he describes nine levels of angels. Within this hierarchy, thrones are placed at the third highest level [2].
In Judaism, the corresponding order of angels is called Abalim or Arelim/Erelim. However, this is usually not translated to thrones but instead "heroes" or "warriors" [3]. The lore surrounding thrones is not consistent with the Jewish depiction of abalim folklore or their function in Isiah 33:7 [4].
The thrones are angels which function as the chariots of God driven by cherubs and are characterized by peace. They are depicted as great wheels containing many eyes. They reside in the area of the cosmos where material form begins to take shape and they chant glorias to God and remain forever by his side [5].
They are also described to mete out divine justice and maintain the cosmic harmony of the universe [5].

The Council of Heaven
Psalm 89:7 speaks about a council where saints meet and where God is feared [6]. In Daniel 7:9, the bible describes thrones as being among that council. In this passage, they also describe thrones as being " the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire." [7].
Hierarchy of Angels as Described in De Coelesti Hierarchia
The hierarchy of angels consists of nine angels divided into three hierarchies. These hierarchies are called the first, middle and last and are described in CAPUT VII, CAPUT VIII, and CAPUT IX [2].
The First Hierarchy
1. Seraphim
2. Cherubim
3. Thrones
The Middle Hierarchy
1. Lordships
2. Powers
3. Authorities
The Last Hierarchy
1. Principalities
2. Archangels
3. Angels
[1]: "For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him".
[3]: Bunson, Matthew. Angels A to Z. New York:Crown Trade Paperbacks, 1996. ISBN 0-517-88537-9.
[4]: Louis Ginzberg: Legends of the Jews 5:23, n. 64; 5:417, n. 117
[5]: Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1996). Encyclopedia of Angels. ISBN 0-8160-2988-1, p.37
[6]: "7 God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints, and to be had in reverence of all them that are about him."
[7]: "9 beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire."

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